• Teorías sistémicas de la comunicación
  • Systemic Theories of Communication
Dirk Baecker

Resumen

Las teorías sistémicas de la comunicación se derivan de la deconstrucción de la teoría matemática de la comunicación y del modelo de transmisión de Claude Shannon y Warren Weaver. Refiriendo a la pregunta irresuelta sobre la identidad de un mensaje para distintos observadores, estas teorías desarrollaron un modelo selectivo de comunicación. En función de superar el modelo ingenieril de la señalización (en vez de comunicación) propuesto por Shannon y Weaver, las teorías sistémicas no asumen que un mensaje es seleccionado de un set de mensajes posibles, sino que el set de posibles mensajes, así como el mensaje que será seleccionado de ese set (contexto), debe ser construido por los participantes de la comunicación.

Abstract

Systemic theories of communication proceed from a deconstruction of Shannon's and Weaver's mathematical theory and transmission model of communication. Referring to the unresolved question of the identity of a message for different observers they instead develop a selection model of communication. In order to overcome the engineering model of signaling (rather than communication) offered by Shannon and Weaver systemic theories drop the assumption of a given set of possible messages any one message is considered to be selected from, and instead assume that the set of possible messages is to be constructed by the participants in communication as much as the single message then to be selected from that constructed set, also known as the context.

Palabras clave

Autología; Comunicación; Forma; Mensaje; Red; Observador; Selección; Sociedad; Teoría sistémica

keywords

Autology; Communication; Form; Message; Network; Observer; Selection; Society; Systemic Theory

Texto completo: PDF

Referencias


Ashby, W. (1958). Requisite Variety and Its Implications for the Control of Complex Systems. Cybernetica, 1(2). 83-99.

Baecker, D. (1997). Bringing Communication Back into Cybernetics. Systemica: Journal of the Dutch Systems Group, 11, 11-28.

Baecker, D. (2005). Form und Formen der Kommunikation. Frankfurt aM: Suhrkamp.

Bagley, P. (1968). Extension of Programming Language Concepts. Philadelphia, Pa: University of City Science Center.

Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine.

Bense, M. (1969). Einführung in die informationstheoretische Ästhetik: Grundlegung und Anwendung der Texttheorie. Reinbek bH: Rowohlt.

De Saussure, F. (1986). Course in General Linguistics. La Salle, Il: Open court.

Frege, G. (1980). Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. Oxford: Blackwell.

Habermas, J. (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press.

Hayles, K. (1999). How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago, Il: Chicago UP.

Heider, F. (1926). Thing and Medium. In F. Heider, On Perception, Event Structure, and Psychological Environment: Selected Papers [Psychological Issues 1 (3)] (pp. 1-34). New York: International university Press, 1959.

Hirschman, A. (1970). Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP.

Jakobson, R. (1981). Linguistics and Poetics. In R. Rudy (Ed.), Selected Writings, vol. III: Poetry of Grammar and Grammar of Poetry (pp. 18-51). The Hague: Mouton.

Krippendorff, K. (1994). A Recursive Theory of Communication. In D. Crowley & D. Mitchell (Eds.), Communication Theory Today (pp. 78-104). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Locke, J. (1959). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. New York: Dover.

Luhmann, N. (1990). Meaning as Sociology’s Basic Concept. In, Essays on Self-Reference (21-79). New York: Columbia UP.

Luhmann, N. (1992a). Operational Closure and Structural Coupling: The Differentiation of the Legal System. Cardozo Law Review, 13, 1419-1441.

Luhmann, N. (1992b). What Is Communication? Communication Theory, 2, 251-259.

Luhmann, N. (1995). Social Systems. Stanford, Ca: Stanford UP.

Luhmann, N. (1997). Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft. Frankfurt aM: Suhrkamp.

MacKay, D. (1969). Information, Mechanism and Meaning. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Maturana, H. (1975). The Organization of the Living: A Theory of the Living Organization. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 7, 313-332.

Maturana, H. & Varela, F. (1980). Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living. Dordrecht: Reidel.

McCulloch, W. (1965). Embodiments of Mind. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Nietzsche, F. (2006). On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense. In The Nietzsche Reader (pp. 114-123). MaIden, Mass: Blackwell.

Pask, G. (1970). The Cybernetics of Behavior and Cognition Extending the Meaning of ‘Goal’. Cybernetica 13, 139-159; 250.

Pask, G. (1981). Organizational Closure of Potentially Conscious Systems. In M. Zeleny (Ed.), Autopoiesis: A Theory of Living Organization (pp. 265-308). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Peter, J. (1999). Speaking into the Air: A History of the Idea of Communication. Chicago, Il: Chicago UP.

Ruesch, J. & Bateson, G. (1951). Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry. New York: Norton.

Schlegel, F. (1997). On Incomprehensibility. In J. Schulte-Sasse (Ed.), Theory as Practice: A Critical Anthology of Early German Romantic Writings (pp. 118-127). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

ScheIeiermacher, F. (1995). Friedrich Schleiermacher’s ‘Toward a Theory of Sociable conduct’, and Essays in its intellectual-Cultural Context. Lewiston, NY: Edwin MelIen Press.

Serres, M. (1968-1980). Hermès Vol. 1: La communication. Vol. 2: L’interférence. Vol. 3: La traduction. Vol. 4: Lo distribution. Vol. 5: Le passage du nord-ouest. Paris: Le Seuil.

Serres M. (1982). The Parasite. Baltimore. MD: Johns Hopkins UP.

Shannon, C. (1948). A Mathematical Theory at Communication. Bell System Technical journal, 27, 379-423; 623-656.

Shannon, C. (1949). Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. Bell System Technical journal, 28: 656-715.

Shannon, C. & Weaver, W. (1948). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, Il: Illinois UP.

Simmel, G. (1950). The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Glencoe, Il: Free Press.

Spencer-Brown, G. (1969). Laws of Form. London: AlIen & Unwin.

von Foester, H. (1974). On Constructing a Reality. [Reprinted in: Heinz von Foerster, Understanding Understanding: Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition (pp. 211-227). New York: Springer, 2003]

von Foerster, H. (1914). Notes on an Epistemology for Living Things. [Reprinted in: Heinz von Foerster, Understanding Understanding: Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition (pp. 247-259). New York: Springer, 2003]

von Foerster, H. (1980). Epistemology of Communication. In K. Woodward (ed.), The Myths of information, Technology and Post-industrial Culture (pp. 18-27). Madison, WI: Coda.

von Foerster, H. (1993). For Niklas Luhmann: ‘How Recursive is Communication?’ [Reprinted in: Heinz von Foerster, Understanding Understanding: Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition (pp. 305-323). New York: Springer, 2003]

von Foerster, H. & Pörksen, B. (2002). Understanding Systems: Conversations on Epistemology and Ethics. New York: Plenum Press.

Watzlawick, P. Beavin, J. & Jackson, D. (1967). Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. New York: Norton.

White, H. (1992). Identity and Control: A Structural Theory of Action. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Whitehead, A. (1967). Science and the Modern World. New York: Free Press.

Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.




DOI: 10.5354/0718-0527.2017.47267